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Good Calories, Bad Calories
chinese tea weight loss
Image by Earthworm
In this 460 page, brain taxing book, Gary Taubes, a journalist specializing in public health, nutrition and diet and a correspondent for Science magazine, offers a crash course in the history of nutrition science especially as it relates to disease. Since the 1940s such study turns out to be a misguided mish mash of pet theories and arrogant assumptions by a few crusader doctors refusing to look at the inconvenient truths revealed by lesser egos.

By page 50 I was convinced that fat in one’s diet, has no effect whatsoever on cholesterol. In fact if it does, you have a rare disorder. But because of an influential doctor named Ancel Keys, several decades of expensive study was devoted to proving that fat did raise cholesterol which in turn would contribute to heart disease. No conclusive evidence could be found, yet Keys had so convinced his colleagues that fat was the culprit that when other contrary evidence was revealed, researchers still continued to try to believe Keys was right and misinterpreted the results. Thus a group of doctor buddies were able to influence government dietary recommendations, (a project put forth by George McGovern in his run-up to becoming a presidential candidate) and that pretty much fixed it.

Outsider, outlier doctors, who worked in the Navy for instance or with missionaries, and had seen the effects of colonization on the health of populations overseas i.e. Africa, observed that the diseases of civilization—heart disease, hypertension, stroke, cancer, diabetes, peptic ulcers, cavities, periodontal disease, diverticulitis, gallstones, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, constipation, dementia, asthma, appendicitis and even aging—were non-existent until these populations started to eat the diet of the new settlers. And that the introduced diets included large amounts of carbohydrates. As for the carbohydrates in rice eating nations of Asia, it was a starvation level diet that kept the carbohydrates from causing the usual havoc. All blood sugar is consumed if you don’t eat much to begin with. However, per this book, precious few studies, on the subject, have been devoted to Asian populations. (Comments on Amazon regarding this book suggests that the traditional Chinese diet is much higher in fat than has been realized and all parts of the animal were eaten so was not a rice based diet per se.)

Carbohydrates are the preferred diets of colonizers because of the ease with which they are transported; think shipments of grain. It is also the food of agriculture, especially industrialized agriculture derived from excessive use of petroleum, as we know, thus the term peak carbohydrates comes to mind. And perhaps why the increasing popularity of the Paleo diet as an alternative narrative, now that we’re here on the downward slope, but I digress.

The study of nutrition was actually heading in the right direction between 1910 and 1940 and obesity was being successfully treated with low carb, high fat diets. But World War II derailed this trend for a number of reasons. One of which was that the best studies were being done by Germans and Austrians, but once the English and Americans defeated Germany, and English became the world language no one could be bothered with the Germans for any intellectual contribution. Another reason was that those, such as Ancel Keys, who observed changes in the diet of wartime populations, became convinced that the removal of farmed meat from the diet led to lower mortality (although not by much it turns out). Nor did he consider that the population replaced the meat with fish or ate horse meat as my mother did. The authors of "The China Study" also used this historical anecdote to back up claims that a vegetarian diet kept everyone healthier, but neither story accounts for the shortage of diesel fuel which made everyone walk more and the sugar rationing of the time and rationing of tea and biscuits.

Keys then went on to insist that heart disease was on the rise and with the heart attack suffered by President Eisenhower, the public, too, were convinced that this was so. And nobody could let the fat culprit go after that. Especially when nutrition scientists insisted that the body followed the laws of physics i.e. thermodynamics rather than biochemistry. This was particularly hard on fat people because doctors insisted that a calorie eaten was a calorie that had to be expended in activity or obesity would result. This was no more true than to insist that eating would make you taller. Earlier studies had already proven that neither diet nor exercise would make people lose weight because basically you cannot maintain a starvation diet. It only needed the biochemistry studies to prove it.

As it turned out body fat is not released for use as energy by exercising (because locked down by body chemistry—you gain quickly, but lose only a little) so any attempt to exercise for weight loss has very little result especially because increased hunger results so you eat to compensate. (Adrenaline will mobilize fat storage release and so does smoking.) It was also discovered that fat was not created in the body until certain biochemical reactions involving insulin took place, so over-eating did not necessarily make people fat. Even when this was revealed, doctor’s still stubbornly clung to the original flawed thinking. Which makes me wonder if obesity serves the same purpose for doctors as homosexuality did for the psychiatric community. Namely as an example of gluttony as a moral deficit. (Homosexuality as an example of depravity and general immorality.)

Nothing was helpful in revealing the true culprit until diabetes research could really take hold. It was then that insulin was revealed to be the regulator of energy within the body and the relationship discovered between carbohydrates and the production of insulin within the body. The author also provides the relevant science (which I’ll cover in my next report). Since it was known that diabetics were more prone to heart disease, cancer, obesity and suffered dementia twice as much, it occurred to some to ask if diabetics were the canary in the coal mine. And all the diseases of civilization were related to insulin activity. In fact one researcher did determine that the artherogenic profile for heart disease was seen in diabetics—high triglycerides and low HDL.

It wasn’t until a 2007 study that enough information about lipoprotein metabolism existed to lay the whole cholesterol/fat relationship to rest, but such news didn’t make the cover of Time so the public is none the wiser and doctors already in the field don’t appear to want to know. I’m glad that the research is finally getting a grip on this whole issue of metabolic syndrome and is now being taught in medical schools, but I agree with the author that it’s a sorry state of affairs when doctors don’t even care to prove some of their basic assumptions of biochemistry and diet, but just assume they know all they need to know.

Hoa Hồng Rosa Rosaceae
chinese tea weight loss
Image by Hoa Trai Viet Nam
Hồng hay hường là tên gọi chung cho các loài thực vật có hoa dạng cây bụi hoặc cây leo lâu năm thuộc chi Rosa, họ Rosaceae, với hơn 100 loài với màu hoa đa dạng, phân bố từ miền ôn đới đến nhiệt đới. Các loài này nổi tiếng vì hoa đẹp nên thường gọi là hoa hồng. Đa phần có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Á, số ít còn lại có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Âu, Bắc Mỹ, và Tây Bắc Phi. Các loài bản địa, giống cây trồng và cây lai ghép đều được trồng làm cảnh và lấy hương thơm.. Đôi khi các loài này được gọi theo tiếng Trung là tường vi (薔薇).
Hình thái
Đây là các cây bụi mọc đứng hoặc mọc leo, thân và cành có gai. Lá kép lông chim lẻ, lá chét khía răng, có lá kèm. Hoa thơm, màu sắc đa dạng: hồng, trắng, vàng hay đỏ… Hoa thường có nhiều cánh do nhị đực biến thành. Đế hoa hình chén. Quả bế, tụ nhau trong đế hoa dày lên thành quả.
Các loài
Dưới đây là một số loài hồng tiêu biểu
•Rosa beauvaisii: hồng Beauvais
•Rosa californica: hồng California
•Rosa canina: tầm xuân
•Rosa chinensis: hồng, hường, nguyệt quý hoa
•Rosa cymosa: hồng roi, tầm xuân
•Rosa gallica: hồng Pháp
•Rosa glauca (đồng nghĩa R. rubrifolia): hồng lá đỏ
•Rosa laevigata (đồng nghĩa R. sinica): hồng vụng, kim anh
•Rosa leschenaultiana: hồng Leschenault
•Rosa longicuspis: hồng mũi dài
•Rosa multiflora: tầm xuân nhiều hoa
•Rosa pimpinellifolia: hồng Scotch
•Rosa rubus: hồng đum
•Rosa rugosa: hồng Nhật, hồng Rugosa Rose
•Rosa transmorissonensis: hồng choắt
•Rosa tunquinensis: tầm xuân Bắc, quầng quầng
•Rosa virginiana (đồng nghĩa R. lucida): hồng Virginia
•Rosa yunnanensis: hồng Vân Nam
Hoa hồng trong văn hóa
Với vẻ đẹp, hình dáng và hương thơm nổi bật, hoa hồng là hoa biểu trưng hay được dùng nhất ở phương Tây, tương ứng trong tổng thể với hình tượng hoa sen ở châu Á, cả hai đều gần gũi với biểu tượng bánh xe. Trong văn hóa Ấn Độ, bông hồng vũ trụ Triparasundari được dùng làm vật đối chiếu với vẻ đẹp của người Mẹ thánh thần, biểu thị một sự hoàn mĩ trọn vẹn và không có thiếu sót. Bên cạnh đó, hoa hồng còn tượng trưng cho phần thưởng cuộc sống, tâm hồn, trái tim, tình yêu, và có thể được chiêm ngưỡng như một mandala.
Trong hệ tranh tượng Kitô giáo, hoa hồng hoặc là cái chén hứng máu của Chúa Kitô, hoặc là sự hóa thân của những giọt máu này và thậm chí, là chính vết thương của Chúa.
Hình hoa hồng gô-thích và hoa hồng hướng gió (hình hoa hồng 32 cánh ứng với 32 hướng gió) đánh dấu bước chuyển của xu hướng biểu trưng của hoa hồng sang xu hướng biểu trưng bánh xe.
Saadi de Chiraz trong đạo Hồi quan niệm vườn hoa hồng là vườn của sự quán tưởng.
Trong văn hóa phương Tây, hoa hồng, bởi sự tương hợp với màu máu chảy, thường xuất hiện như là biểu tượng của sự phục sinh huyền bí. Abd Ul Kadir Gilani so sánh hoa hồng với những vết sẹo trên cơ thể sống, trong khi đó F. Portal quan niệm hoa hồng vào màu hồng hợp thành một biểu tượng của sự tái sinh do có quan hệ gần gũi ngữ nghĩa của từ latinh rosa (hoa hồng) với ros (mưa, sương). Với người Hy Lạp hoa hồng vốn là một loài hoa màu trắng, nhưng khi Adonis bị tử thương, nữ thần Aphorodite chạy đến cứu chàng đã bị đâm phải một cái gai và máu đã nhuộm thẫm những bông hồng cung tiến nàng. Chính ý nghĩa biểu trưng về sự tái sinh đã khiến con người, từ thời cổ đại, đặt những bông hồng lên các nấm mộ, và Hecate, nữ thần âm phủ đôi khi được thể hiện với hình ảnh đầu quấn một vòng hoa hồng có 5 lá.
Theo Bède, ở thế kỷ VII mộ của Chúa Giêxu được sơn một màu pha lẫn trắng và đỏ. Hai yếu tố tạo thành màu của hoa hồng này, màu trắng và màu đỏ, với giá trị biểu trưng truyền thống của chúng phản ánh các bình diện từ trần tục đến thiêng liêng, trong sự khác nhau ứng với sự dâng tặng những bông hồng trắng hay đỏ[4].
Hoa hồng đã trở thành biểu tượng của tình yêu và còn hơn thế, của sự dâng hiến tình yêu, của tình yêu trong trắng, tương tự ý nghĩa của hoa sen Ai Cập và cây thủy tiên Hy Lạp.
Dù là màu trắng hay màu đỏ, hoa hồng cũng đều được các nhà luyện đan ưa chuộng hơn cả, mà những chuyên luận của họ thường mang những tiêu đề như "Những cây hồng của các nhà triết học". Trong khi đó, hoa hồng màu lam lại biểu tượng của cái bất khả, cái không thể đạt tới.

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A rose is a perennial plant of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are large and showy, in a number of colours from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and fragrance. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Species from different parts of the world easily hybridize, which has given rise to the many types of garden roses.[1]
The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhodon (Aeolic βρόδον wrodon), related to Old Persian wrd-, Avestan varəda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr, Armenian vard.[2][3]
Botany
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from South east Asia) are evergreen or nearly so.
The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. The ovary is inferior, developing below the petals and sepals. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.
The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds.
While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called "thorns", they are technically prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (True thorns, as produced by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which always originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself.) Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.
Species
Further information: List of Rosa species
The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:
•Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning "with single leaves") containing one or two species from southwest Asia, R. persica and Rosa berberifolia which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
•Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America.
•Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii.
•Rosa (the type subgenus) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
oBanksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China.
oBracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India.
oCaninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
oCarolinae – white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America.
oChinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma.
oGallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe.
oGymnocarpae – one species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), others in east Asia.
oLaevigatae – a single white flowered species from China
oPimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
oRosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa.
oSynstylae – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.
Uses
Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover. They also have minor medicinal uses.
Ornamental plants
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).
Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China.[4] Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having mutated into additional petals.
In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.
A few species and hybrids are grown for non-floral ornamental use. Among these are those grown for prominent hips, such as the flagon shaped hips of Rosa moyesii. Sometimes even the thorns can be treated as an attraction or curiosity, such as with Rosa sericea.
Cut flowers
Bouquet of pink roses
Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.
In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in glasshouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pests and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.[5]
Perfume
Main article: Rose oil
Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia then spread through Arabia and India, but nowadays about 70% to 80% of production is in the Rose Valley near Kazanluk in Bulgaria, with some production in Qamsar in Iran and Germany.[citation needed] The Kaaba in Mecca is annually washed by the Iranian rose water from Qamsar[citation needed]. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are used. In the French rose oil industry Rosa centifolia is used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ‘Rose Absolute’ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil.

Geraniol (C10H18O)
The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol; and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin. β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent.
Rose water, made as a byproduct of rose oil production, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The French are known for their rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scones and marshmallows.
Rose hips
The rose hip, the fruit of some species, is used as a minor source of Vitamin C.
Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce Rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.
Medicine
The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement (see previous section). Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth.[6]
Culture
Art
Roses are a favored subject in art and therefore used in various artistic disciplines. They appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses.

Renoir’s painting of cabbage roses, Roses in a vase
Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The Rose ‘Fantin-Latour’ was named after the artist.
Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their works.
Symbolism
Further information: Rose (symbolism)
The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol.
Pests and diseases
Main articles: Pests and diseases of roses and List of rose diseases
Roses are subject to several diseases. The main fungal diseases affecting the leaves are rose black spot (Diplocarpon rosae), rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), rose powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa) and rose downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa). Stems can be affected by several canker diseases, the most commonly seen of which is stem canker (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium). Diseases of the root zone include honey fungus (Armillaria spp.), verticillium wilt, and various species of phytophthora.
Fungal leaf diseases affecting roses are best prevented by choosing to grow cultivars and species known to be less susceptible to attack, and by using a preventative fungicidal spray program (rather than by trying to cure an infection after it emerges on the plant). After disease is visible, spread can be minimized through pruning and the use of fungicides, although the actual infection cannot be reversed. Stem cankers are best treated by pruning out infection as soon as it is noticed. Root diseases are not usually possible to treat, once infection has occurred; the most practical line of defence is to ensure that growing conditions maximise plant health and thereby prevent infection. Phytophthora species are waterborne and therefore improving drainage and reducing waterlogging can help reduce infection.
The main pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. (Ladybugs are a predator of aphids and should be encouraged in the rose garden.) In areas where they are endemic Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) take a heavy toll on rose flowers and foliage; rose blooms can also be destroyed by infestations of thrips (Thysanoptera spp). Roses are also used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on roses. The spraying with insecticide of roses is often recommended but should be done with care to minimize the loss of beneficial insects.

Hoa Hồng Rosa Rosaceae
chinese tea weight loss
Image by Hoa Trai Viet Nam
Hồng hay hường là tên gọi chung cho các loài thực vật có hoa dạng cây bụi hoặc cây leo lâu năm thuộc chi Rosa, họ Rosaceae, với hơn 100 loài với màu hoa đa dạng, phân bố từ miền ôn đới đến nhiệt đới. Các loài này nổi tiếng vì hoa đẹp nên thường gọi là hoa hồng. Đa phần có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Á, số ít còn lại có nguồn gốc bản địa châu Âu, Bắc Mỹ, và Tây Bắc Phi. Các loài bản địa, giống cây trồng và cây lai ghép đều được trồng làm cảnh và lấy hương thơm.. Đôi khi các loài này được gọi theo tiếng Trung là tường vi (薔薇).
Hình thái
Đây là các cây bụi mọc đứng hoặc mọc leo, thân và cành có gai. Lá kép lông chim lẻ, lá chét khía răng, có lá kèm. Hoa thơm, màu sắc đa dạng: hồng, trắng, vàng hay đỏ… Hoa thường có nhiều cánh do nhị đực biến thành. Đế hoa hình chén. Quả bế, tụ nhau trong đế hoa dày lên thành quả.
Các loài
Dưới đây là một số loài hồng tiêu biểu
•Rosa beauvaisii: hồng Beauvais
•Rosa californica: hồng California
•Rosa canina: tầm xuân
•Rosa chinensis: hồng, hường, nguyệt quý hoa
•Rosa cymosa: hồng roi, tầm xuân
•Rosa gallica: hồng Pháp
•Rosa glauca (đồng nghĩa R. rubrifolia): hồng lá đỏ
•Rosa laevigata (đồng nghĩa R. sinica): hồng vụng, kim anh
•Rosa leschenaultiana: hồng Leschenault
•Rosa longicuspis: hồng mũi dài
•Rosa multiflora: tầm xuân nhiều hoa
•Rosa pimpinellifolia: hồng Scotch
•Rosa rubus: hồng đum
•Rosa rugosa: hồng Nhật, hồng Rugosa Rose
•Rosa transmorissonensis: hồng choắt
•Rosa tunquinensis: tầm xuân Bắc, quầng quầng
•Rosa virginiana (đồng nghĩa R. lucida): hồng Virginia
•Rosa yunnanensis: hồng Vân Nam
Hoa hồng trong văn hóa
Với vẻ đẹp, hình dáng và hương thơm nổi bật, hoa hồng là hoa biểu trưng hay được dùng nhất ở phương Tây, tương ứng trong tổng thể với hình tượng hoa sen ở châu Á, cả hai đều gần gũi với biểu tượng bánh xe. Trong văn hóa Ấn Độ, bông hồng vũ trụ Triparasundari được dùng làm vật đối chiếu với vẻ đẹp của người Mẹ thánh thần, biểu thị một sự hoàn mĩ trọn vẹn và không có thiếu sót. Bên cạnh đó, hoa hồng còn tượng trưng cho phần thưởng cuộc sống, tâm hồn, trái tim, tình yêu, và có thể được chiêm ngưỡng như một mandala.
Trong hệ tranh tượng Kitô giáo, hoa hồng hoặc là cái chén hứng máu của Chúa Kitô, hoặc là sự hóa thân của những giọt máu này và thậm chí, là chính vết thương của Chúa.
Hình hoa hồng gô-thích và hoa hồng hướng gió (hình hoa hồng 32 cánh ứng với 32 hướng gió) đánh dấu bước chuyển của xu hướng biểu trưng của hoa hồng sang xu hướng biểu trưng bánh xe.
Saadi de Chiraz trong đạo Hồi quan niệm vườn hoa hồng là vườn của sự quán tưởng.
Trong văn hóa phương Tây, hoa hồng, bởi sự tương hợp với màu máu chảy, thường xuất hiện như là biểu tượng của sự phục sinh huyền bí. Abd Ul Kadir Gilani so sánh hoa hồng với những vết sẹo trên cơ thể sống, trong khi đó F. Portal quan niệm hoa hồng vào màu hồng hợp thành một biểu tượng của sự tái sinh do có quan hệ gần gũi ngữ nghĩa của từ latinh rosa (hoa hồng) với ros (mưa, sương). Với người Hy Lạp hoa hồng vốn là một loài hoa màu trắng, nhưng khi Adonis bị tử thương, nữ thần Aphorodite chạy đến cứu chàng đã bị đâm phải một cái gai và máu đã nhuộm thẫm những bông hồng cung tiến nàng. Chính ý nghĩa biểu trưng về sự tái sinh đã khiến con người, từ thời cổ đại, đặt những bông hồng lên các nấm mộ, và Hecate, nữ thần âm phủ đôi khi được thể hiện với hình ảnh đầu quấn một vòng hoa hồng có 5 lá.
Theo Bède, ở thế kỷ VII mộ của Chúa Giêxu được sơn một màu pha lẫn trắng và đỏ. Hai yếu tố tạo thành màu của hoa hồng này, màu trắng và màu đỏ, với giá trị biểu trưng truyền thống của chúng phản ánh các bình diện từ trần tục đến thiêng liêng, trong sự khác nhau ứng với sự dâng tặng những bông hồng trắng hay đỏ[4].
Hoa hồng đã trở thành biểu tượng của tình yêu và còn hơn thế, của sự dâng hiến tình yêu, của tình yêu trong trắng, tương tự ý nghĩa của hoa sen Ai Cập và cây thủy tiên Hy Lạp[4].
Dù là màu trắng hay màu đỏ, hoa hồng cũng đều được các nhà luyện đan ưa chuộng hơn cả, mà những chuyên luận của họ thường mang những tiêu đề như "Những cây hồng của các nhà triết học". Trong khi đó, hoa hồng màu lam lại biểu tượng của cái bất khả, cái không thể đạt tới.
A rose is a perennial plant of the genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or trailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers are large and showy, in a number of colours from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwest Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and fragrance. Rose plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Species from different parts of the world easily hybridize, which has given rise to the many types of garden roses.[1]
The name rose comes from French, itself from Latin rosa, which was perhaps borrowed from Oscan, from Greek ρόδον rhodon (Aeolic βρόδον wrodon), related to Old Persian wrd-, Avestan varəda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr, Armenian vard.[2][3]
Botany
The leaves are borne alternately on the stem. In most species they are 5 to 15 centimetres (2.0 to 5.9 in) long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most roses are deciduous but a few (particularly from South east Asia) are evergreen or nearly so.
The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. The ovary is inferior, developing below the petals and sepals. Roses are insect-pollinated in nature.
The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Many of the domestic cultivars do not produce hips, as the flowers are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds.
While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called "thorns", they are technically prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). (True thorns, as produced by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which always originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself.) Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses have only vestigial prickles that have no points.
Species
Further information: List of Rosa species
The genus Rosa is subdivided into four subgenera:
•Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning "with single leaves") containing one or two species from southwest Asia, R. persica and Rosa berberifolia which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
•Hesperrhodos (from the Greek for "western rose") contains Rosa minutifolia and Rosa stellata, from North America.
•Platyrhodon (from the Greek for "flaky rose", referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii.
•Rosa (the type subgenus) containing all the other roses. This subgenus is subdivided into 11 sections.
oBanksianae – white and yellow flowered roses from China.
oBracteatae – three species, two from China and one from India.
oCaninae – pink and white flowered species from Asia, Europe and North Africa.
oCarolinae – white, pink, and bright pink flowered species all from North America.
oChinensis – white, pink, yellow, red and mixed-color roses from China and Burma.
oGallicanae – pink to crimson and striped flowered roses from western Asia and Europe.
oGymnocarpae – one species in western North America (Rosa gymnocarpa), others in east Asia.
oLaevigatae – a single white flowered species from China
oPimpinellifoliae – white, pink, bright yellow, mauve and striped roses from Asia and Europe.
oRosa (syn. sect. Cinnamomeae) – white, pink, lilac, mulberry and red roses from everywhere but North Africa.
oSynstylae – white, pink, and crimson flowered roses from all areas.
Uses
Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors. They have been also used for commercial perfumery and commercial cut flower crops. Some are used as landscape plants, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover. They also have minor medicinal uses.
Ornamental plants
The majority of ornamental roses are hybrids that were bred for their flowers. A few, mostly species roses are grown for attractive or scented foliage (such as Rosa glauca and Rosa rubiginosa), ornamental thorns (such as Rosa sericea) or for their showy fruit (such as Rosa moyesii).
Ornamental roses have been cultivated for millennia, with the earliest known cultivation known to date from at least 500 BC in Mediterranean countries, Persia, and China.[4] Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants. Most are double-flowered with many or all of the stamens having mutated into additional petals.
In the early 19th century the Empress Josephine of France patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.
A few species and hybrids are grown for non-floral ornamental use. Among these are those grown for prominent hips, such as the flagon shaped hips of Rosa moyesii. Sometimes even the thorns can be treated as an attraction or curiosity, such as with Rosa sericea.
Cut flowers
Bouquet of pink roses
Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers. Generally they are harvested and cut when in bud, and held in refrigerated conditions until ready for display at their point of sale.
In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in glasshouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged by weather and that pests and disease control can be carried out effectively. Significant quantities are grown in some tropical countries, and these are shipped by air to markets across the world.[5]
Perfume
Main article: Rose oil
Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia then spread through Arabia and India, but nowadays about 70% to 80% of production is in the Rose Valley near Kazanluk in Bulgaria, with some production in Qamsar in Iran and Germany.[citation needed] The Kaaba in Mecca is annually washed by the Iranian rose water from Qamsar[citation needed]. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa damascena ‘Trigintipetala’) are used. In the French rose oil industry Rosa centifolia is used. The oil is transparent pale yellow or yellow-grey in colour. ‘Rose Absolute’ is solvent-extracted with hexane and produces a darker oil, dark yellow to orange in colour. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce one gram of oil.

Geraniol (C10H18O)
The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol and l-citronellol; and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin. β-Damascenone is also a significant contributor to the scent.
Rose water, made as a byproduct of rose oil production, is widely used in Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. The French are known for their rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals. In the United States, this French rose syrup is used to make rose scones and marshmallows.
Rose hips
The rose hip, the fruit of some species, is used as a minor source of Vitamin C.
Rose hips are occasionally made into jam, jelly, and marmalade, or are brewed for tea, primarily for their high vitamin C content. They are also pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup. Rose hips are also used to produce Rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.
Medicine
The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used as a food supplement (see previous section). Many roses have been used in herbal and folk medicines. Rosa chinensis has long been used in Chinese traditional medicine. This and other species have been used for stomach problems, and are being investigated for controlling cancer growth.[6]
Culture
Art
Roses are a favored subject in art and therefore used in various artistic disciplines. They appear in portraits, illustrations, on stamps, as ornaments or as architectural elements. The Luxembourg born Belgian artist and botanist Pierre-Joseph Redouté is known for his detailed watercolours of flowers, particularly roses.

Renoir’s painting of cabbage roses, Roses in a vase
Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The Rose ‘Fantin-Latour’ was named after the artist.
Other impressionists including Claude Monet, Paul Cézanne and Pierre-Auguste Renoir have paintings of roses among their works.
Symbolism
Further information: Rose (symbolism)
The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol.
Pests and diseases
Main articles: Pests and diseases of roses and List of rose diseases
Roses are subject to several diseases. The main fungal diseases affecting the leaves are rose black spot (Diplocarpon rosae), rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), rose powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa) and rose downy mildew (Peronospora sparsa). Stems can be affected by several canker diseases, the most commonly seen of which is stem canker (Leptosphaeria coniothyrium). Diseases of the root zone include honey fungus (Armillaria spp.), verticillium wilt, and various species of phytophthora.
Fungal leaf diseases affecting roses are best prevented by choosing to grow cultivars and species known to be less susceptible to attack, and by using a preventative fungicidal spray program (rather than by trying to cure an infection after it emerges on the plant). After disease is visible, spread can be minimized through pruning and the use of fungicides, although the actual infection cannot be reversed. Stem cankers are best treated by pruning out infection as soon as it is noticed. Root diseases are not usually possible to treat, once infection has occurred; the most practical line of defence is to ensure that growing conditions maximise plant health and thereby prevent infection. Phytophthora species are waterborne and therefore improving drainage and reducing waterlogging can help reduce infection.
The main pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. (Ladybugs are a predator of aphids and should be encouraged in the rose garden.) In areas where they are endemic Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) take a heavy toll on rose flowers and foliage; rose blooms can also be destroyed by infestations of thrips (Thysanoptera spp). Roses are also used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species; see list of Lepidoptera that feed on roses. The spraying with insecticide of roses is often recommended but should be done with care to minimize the loss of beneficial insects.


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